Презентация на тему Identification of Defects and Secondary Phases in Reactively Sputtered Cu2 ZnSnS4 Thin Films

Презентация на тему Презентация на тему Identification of Defects and Secondary Phases in Reactively Sputtered Cu2 ZnSnS4 Thin Films, предмет презентации: Разное. Этот материал содержит 17 слайдов. Красочные слайды и илюстрации помогут Вам заинтересовать свою аудиторию. Для просмотра воспользуйтесь проигрывателем, если материал оказался полезным для Вас - поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте наш сайт презентаций ThePresentation.ru в закладки!

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Слайд 1
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Identification of Defects and Secondary Phases in Reactively Sputtered Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

Vardaan Chawla, Stacey Bent, Bruce Clemens
April 7th, 2010

Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion
Materials Science and Engineering
Stanford University



Слайд 2
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Outline






Motivation
Problems with characterization of thin films
Experimental approach
Results
X-ray diffraction
Raman Spectroscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Scanning Auger Microscopy
Summary & Acknowledgements


Слайд 3
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Motivation – Phase Equilibrium






CZTS is a line compound between Cu2SnS3 and ZnS
Theoretically even a 2-3% compositional variation could lead to phase separation

Ternary Phase Diagram

Binary Phase Diagram

Olekseyuk, I.D. "Phase Equilibria in the Cu2S-ZnS-SnS2 System." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 368. (2004): 135-143. Print.


CZTS


Слайд 4
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Motivation – Crystal Structure






Crystal structures of secondary phases similar to CZTS
All primary peaks overlap and hard to separate
Low intensity peaks cannot be seen easily in thin films

Theoretical XRD Patterns of CZTS, Cu2SnS3, and ZnS


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Experimental Approach









Substrate

Cu

Zn

Sn

Introduce H2S into chamber during sputter deposition
Sulfur is incorporated into the film in one step (no anneal)
Expect to see higher densities and improved film quality

Reactive Sputtering


Слайд 6
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Characterization - XRD






Varying Zn/(Cu+Sn) Ratio

Zn/(Cu+Sn) ratio is varied while holding Cu/Sn ratio constant
Impossible to determine difference between CZTS, CTS, and ZnS from XRD pattern

(101)

(200)

(220)

(312)

(112)

Olekseyuk, I.D. "Phase Equilibria in the Cu2S-ZnS-SnS2 System." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 368. (2004): 135-143. Print.







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Characterization - XRD






Varying Cu/(Zn+Sn) Ratio

Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio is varied while holding Zn/Sn ratio constant
Need to get very far off 2:1:1 stoichiometry before any CuxS phases can be seen
CuxS can be removed with KCN etch

(101)

(200)

(220)

(312)

(112)

Olekseyuk, I.D. "Phase Equilibria in the Cu2S-ZnS-SnS2 System." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 368. (2004): 135-143. Print.






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Characterization – Raman






Varying Zn/(Cu+Sn) Ratio

Raman spectra show only minor changes even though composition is varied dramatically
No evidence of the CuxS phase shown by other groups at growth temperatures higher than 500C

Varying Cu/(Zn+Sn) Ratio


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Device Fabrication






Glass Substrate

3000 µm

Molybdenum Layer

1 µm

1.75 µm

CdS (n-type)

55 nm

ZnO:Al (n-type)

340 nm

Aluminum Grid

CZTS Absorber (p-type)

CZTS Device Stack

Zn-rich films incorporated into standard CIGS device stack for testing

ZnO

85 nm

ZnO

ZnO:Al

CdS

CZTS

Mo

SEM Image


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Device Characterization






I-V Measurement

EQE Measurement

First CZTS devices grown by a reactive sputtering process
Efficiency = 1.35%
Degraded EQE clearly points to undetected defects in the absorber


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Characterization - TEM






500nm



Detrimental secondary phase interspersed in CZTS matrix

Stacking faults in the secondary phase point to a transition between cubic and hexagonal crystal structures



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Characterization - Auger






Raster beam over sputtered surface of sample and scan for Cu, Zn, Sn
Overlay Cu, Zn, Sn signal
Composition variation points to CZTS / ZnS (Zn-rich)

2 um

Cu

Zn

Sn

CZTS

ZnS


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Characterization - CdZnS






Cd penetration into ZnS lowers the cubic-hexagonal transition temperature
Stacking faults in TEM images are created during CBD of CdS layer

CdS – ZnS Phase Diagram

(101)

H-ZnS

(220)

(312)

(112)


XRD before and after CBD

C

C + H

H

Chen et al.“Solid State Phase Equilibria in the ZnS-CdS System." Materials Research Bulletin. 23. (1988): 1667-1673. Print.


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Characterization - Auger






Sn

Cd

Overlay Sn and Cd signal
Cd ion exchanges with Zn during bath deposition and penetrates the ZnS phase

CZTS

CdZnS

2 um


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Summary






CZTS thin films were grown using Reactive Sputtering
Films were characterized using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy
Full devices have been grown and tested but are limited due to secondary phases in the films
Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Auger Microscopy can be used to identify these secondary phases


Слайд 16
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Acknowledgements






US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center
http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/EFRC/index.html

Applied Quantum Technologies
Local thin film solar startup
http://www.aqtsolar.com


Слайд 17
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Questions






Questions?


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