Late Victorian Prose & Drama
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“Grand Old Man of English literature, towering over his fellow writers”
a great novelist and a great poet
1860s - late 1890s – fiction (are quintessentially of the 19 th century, not Victorian though, not in pursuit of the standards of morality)
The Return of the Native
Tess of the d’Urbervilles
Jude the Obscure
From the turn of the century until his death, he was principally a poet (poetry properly belongs in the Modern period )
Ah, are you digging on my grave
My loved one?--planting rue?"
--"No; yesterday he went to wed
One of the brightest wealth has bred.
'It cannot hurt her now,' he said,
That I 'should not be true.'"
Then who is digging on my grave?
My nearest dearest kin?"
--"Ah, no; they sit and think, 'What use!
What good will planting flowers produce?
No tendance of her mound can loose
Her spirit from Death's gin.'"
But someone digs upon my grave?
My enemy?--prodding sly?"
--"Nay; when she heard you had passed the Gate
That shuts on all flesh soon or late,
She thought you no more worth her hate,
And cares not where you lie."
Then, who is digging on my grave?
Say--since I have not guessed!"
--"0 it is I, my mistress dear,
Your little dog, who still lives near,
And much I hope my movements here
Have not disturbed your rest?"
Ah, yes! You dig upon my grave . . .
Why flashed it not on me
That one true heart was left behind!
What feeling do we ever find
To equal among humankind
A dog's fidelity!"
Mistress, I dug upon your grave
To bury a bone, in case
I should be hungry near this spot
When passing on my daily trot.
I am sorry, but I quite forgot
It was your resting-place."
an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer.
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
Through the Looking-Glass,
acute representation of childhood without a trace of moralism (characteristic of much of Victorian writing)
the poems “The Hunting of the Snark" and “Jabberwocky"
examples of the genre of literary nonsense.
“You used to be much more..."muchier." You've lost your muchness.”
“I don't think..." then you shouldn't talk”
““If everybody minded their own business, the world would go around a great deal faster than it does.”
he's born Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski in 1857 in the Ukraine but to a family of Polish nobles
His father - a Polish revolutionary - was a writer of politically themed plays, and he also translated a lot of really important English literature (like Shakespeare and Dickens) and French literature (like Victor Hugo) into Polish.
At 16 - moves to Marseille, becomes an international citizen, and a seafaring man.
In 1878 - moves on to British ships, learns English
1895 Almayer's Folly
1896 An Outcast of the Islands
Heart of Darkness, in 1899-1902
1900 Lord Jim
1907 The Secret Agent
1911 Under Western Eyes
about 20 novels + novellas, short stories
Heart of Darkness
two important themes:
colonialism, which is how a ruling power treats its subjects - is a slightly fictionalized exposé on late 19th-century colonialism. Based heavily on Conrad's own seafaring experiences (Conrad himself steered a boat up and down the Congo)
began with the miracle and mystery plays, dramatized stories from the Bible
1590 - 1610 reached sublime heights with Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson
later - fell under the iron rule of Puritanism and middle-class moralism
no drama until the 1st half of the 20th century
a few comic dramatists
A celebrity author is one whose public image is better known than his or her works
Wilde himself liked to assert that his major work of art was himself.
was born in 1854 in Dublin
still in school – helped popularize aestheticism - art for art's sake; it doesn't have a greater purpose. It's not trying to do anything socially, politically. It's beautiful, and it's art. ”The beauty of objects might improve the quality of life”
I find it harder every day to live up to my blue china…
primarily wrote poetry
He also tried lecturing & journalism
the only novel he ever published - The Picture of Dorian Gray in 1891
Vera or The Nihilists (1880) - set in Russia, full of revolutionaries, assassinations, tsars and other things that are very Russian.
The Duchess of Padua (1883)
Lady Windermere's Fan (1892) - a comedy. It's a satire of Victorian society
dark comedy A Woman of No Importance (1893) - a play about the secrets of the Victorian upper class
the tragedy Salome (1893)
An Ideal Husband (1895) ☺- comedy about blackmail, politics and all sorts of great upper class type things, also about relationships and marriage
The Importance of Being Earnest ☺ ☺- satire on Victorian seriousness, moral orthodoxy, and earnestness
was born in Dublin in the aftermath of the famine of the late 1840s, a catastrophe during which Ireland lost half its population
was educated in Dublin as a modestly privileged child of the Protestant ascendancy
his parents separated when he was 16; families and family relationships would mean nothing to him thereafter. Shaw came to see marriage as nothing more than licensed prostitution: Every marriage was a marriage of convenience (Getting Married , Mrs. Warren’s Profession)
School was not much to Shaw’s taste: schools were “prisons” in which children were kept to prevent them from “disturbing” their parents.
moved to London in his early 20s
educated himself in the British Museum Library
wrote mediocre novels
wrote brilliant criticism of music and drama
turned his hand from drama criticism to plays
first play - Widowers’ Houses (1892)
In total, he wrote over 60 stage productions, many of which achieved substantial financial and popular success.
common elements in Shaw's work
a sharp critique of society.
used his plays as a vehicle to challenge social ills in Western society.
a strong sense of humor
He tempered his social critiques with laughs, though these were often of a darker, sarcastic and witty sense of humor
Literary Modernism is a subset of a larger artistic movement called Modernism that embraces painting and music
In the literary realm, it's basically responsible for some seriously weird literature produced roughly between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II.
a response to a lot of the destruction and disruption caused by World War I (technology that was better than the warfare style it was designed for, trench warfare and poison gas)
the city transforms
It provoked a lot of artists, writers, and also painters and musicians, to really think that they need a new art to make sense of this new world
“As far as literature is concerned modernism reveals a breaking away from established rules, traditions and conventions, fresh ways of looking at man’s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. It is particularly concerned with language and how to use it (representationally or otherwise) and with writing itself”
(Dictionary of Literary Terms & Literary Theory).
Characteristics of Modernism in Literature
doesn’t usually make sense
nonlinearity of plot or sequence of things – unexpected plots, puzzle
irony and satire (verbal irony, situational irony, dramatic irony ) - mismatch
voices and the idea of stream of consciousness
Literature Exhibits Perspectivism
Meaning comes from the individual’s perspective and is thus personalized;
A single story might be told from the perspective of several different people, with the assumption that the “truth” is somewhere in the middle
Characteristics of Modernism in Literature
Inner psychological reality or “interiority” is represented: Stream of consciousness—portraying the character’s inner monologue
Organized non-sequentially: Experience portrayed as allusive, discontinuous, using fragmentation and juxtaposition.
Ambiguous endings—open endings which are seen as more representative of reality.
Comes to London in 1908
hangs out with Yeats and T.S. Eliot
created artistic movements
The Cantos, which is unfinished 800 page epic poem
a fascist in Italy
direct treatment of the “thing” as "thing" (an attempt at isolating a single image to reveal its essence)
use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.
As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.
In the Station of the Metro
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.
American living in Paris
difficult-to-understand poems, mostly characterized by wordplay as greater than meaning. She's more interested in how words sound
A classic Steinian phrase is 'A rose is a rose is a rose.' "There is no there there“
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
Tender Buttons 1914
Out of kindness comes redness and out of rudeness comes rapid same question, out of an eye comes research, out of selection comes painful cattle. So then the order is that a white way of being round is something suggesting a pin and is it disappointing, it is not, it is so rudimentary to be analysed and see a fine substance strangely, it is so earnest to have a green point not to red but to point again.
A RED STAMP.
If lilies are lily white if they exhaust noise and distance and even dust, if they dusty will dirt a surface that has no extreme grace, if they do this and it is not necessary it is not at all necessary if they do this they need a catalogue.
Climb up in sight climb in the whole utter needles and a guess a whole guess is hanging. Hanging hanging.
Kind height, kind in the right stomach with a little sudden mill.
Cunning shawl, cunning shawl to be steady.
from New Zealand
a pretty bohemian lifestyle
In a German Pension (1911)
The Garden Party & Other Stories (1922)
Bliss and Other Stories (1923)
died at the age of 34
She was born in 1882
father - a historian/writer, involved in the art world; mother - a model for paintings
married Leonard Woolf in 1912, they started their own printing press - the Hogarth Press - publishing arm of the Bloomsbury Group .
The Voyage Out 1915
Night and Day 1919
Jacob's Room 1922 - success ☺!
(more experimental. It's an indirect character study of Jacob)
Mrs. Dalloway 1925 - breakthrough novel!!!!
To the Lighthouse 1927 - even more experimental
A Room of One's Own 1929
The Waves 1931 - extremely experimental
The Years 1937
Between the Acts 1941
Mrs. Dalloway, 1925
a novel that takes place in a single day in June
Characters: Clarissa Dalloway, her husband Richard, her daughter Elizabeth; Septimus Smith - a shell-shocked World War I veteran, Peter Walsh, who's an old friend of Clarissa's
book is about their memories and their thoughts, a lot of the internal narrative of these characters
death of SS seems to CD as a way of saying something or preserving some sort of independence, something that she and her friends haven't been able to do as they've gone through life
Style - free indirect discourse
free indirect discourse (reads a little like stream of consciousness) - a third person representation of a person's thoughts, but without the 'he said,' 'he thought', 'he considered' tags.
'He wondered why he hadn't thought to try Pepsi before. How effervescent the bubbles, how lovely the taste!‘
'Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges; Rumpelmayer's men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what a morning - fresh as if issued to children on a beach. What a lark! What a plunge!'
the style of the novel: indirect to direct, thoughts and description, all going on at once without really letting readers know the difference between the two - stylistic effect where we're always in the characters' thoughts and we're always out of the characters' thoughts.
a meditation on perspective and thoughts - the characters are constantly thinking about what could have been in their pasts
how people observe the same thing differently
was born in 1885 in English coal-mining country. His father was a coal-miner.
showed from pretty early on that he was a good writer
ended up becoming a teacher in London
got discovered by writer Ford Madox Ford. He starts publishing novels in the early 1910s.
Sons and Lovers - first major book, published in 1913
set in coal-mining country
in coal-mining country a lot of oedipal issues (an unconscious sexual feeling of a son to his mother)
his primary concerns in literature - relationships
The Rainbow (1915) is D.H. Lawrence's first brush with obscenity (a word or action that is sexually offensive).
Women in Love, which is its sequel, comes out in 1920.
Lady Chatterly's Lover (1928) - published in a heavily abridged form until 1960 (Obscene Publications Act passed in 1959 )