Презентация на тему Freshwater Scarcity and Management in the Mountainous Region

4/17/2014 Prof. Neil Hanlon, UNBC Prof. Bill MacGill, UNBC Prof. Stephen Dery, UNBC All the Colleague from this Class Dr. Luna Bharati, Senior Researcher, IMWI-Nepal Various online sources for the

Слайд 1Pabitra Gurung
PhD Student (230111762)

Presentation for the course NRES-802
Natural Resources and Environmental

Studies (NRES)
University of Northern British Columbia
Prince George, BC, CANADA



Слайд 24/17/2014
Prof. Neil Hanlon, UNBC
Prof. Bill MacGill, UNBC
Prof. Stephen Dery, UNBC
All the

Colleague from this Class
Dr. Luna Bharati, Senior Researcher, IMWI-Nepal
Various online sources for the pictures (downloaded through Google search engine)


Слайд 34/17/2014
Global Water Scarcity
Regional Water Scarcity (Himalayan Regions)
Local Management (Nepal)
Outline of the


Слайд 44/17/2014
Projected Global Water Scarcity in 2025 ?
Source: International Water Management Institute


Physical and Economic water scarcity

Слайд 54/17/2014
Based on the UN Medium Population Projections, more than 2.8 billion

people in 48 countries will face water scarcity by 2025
Of these countries, 40 countries are in West Asia, North Africa or sub-Saharan Africa
By 2050, number of water scarce countries could rise to 54 (4 billion people – about 40% of world population)

Source: Population Action International (http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/article141.html)

Projected Global Water Scarcity in 2025 ?

Слайд 64/17/2014
Himalayas & Water Scarcity ?
Himalayas are widely known as the “Water

Towers of Asia”.
Primary Water Source for a large part of Asia’s Population
75-90% of Water is used in food production

Source: ICIMOD

Слайд 74/17/2014
Why water scarcity in the region ?
Population growth (increase households consumption

of water (Current water use status: 10 – 25%))

Higher water consumption for agricultural production (to feed animals and for human consumption) (Agricultural Water Consumption: 30-50% for next few decades and 70-80% by 2050)

Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources (Climate is significantly alter the seasonality of streamflow for many Asian rivers)

Слайд 84/17/2014
Population Growth and Food Production in the Region ?
Nearly 100,000 children

are born every day
One billion additional people will be in 2050 (growing meat consumption)
In 2050, per capita meat consumption will double and half of cereal production will be used to feed animal
Irrigated croplands (85,783,000 ha): mainly for rice production
Water from the Himalayas and the central Asian mountain support the production of over 500 Million tonnes of cereals per year (55% of Asia’s and 25% of world’s cereal production)
By 2050, global cereal production needs to be about 3000 million tonnes to meet the demand (FAO)

Слайд 94/17/2014
Water Resources and Climate of the Region ?
River basins and their

hydrological significance

Слайд 104/17/2014
Water Resources and Climate of the Region ?
Major river: Indus, Ganges,

Brahmaputra, Yangtse, Huang He (Yellow River), Tarim, Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Mekong, Salween, and Irrawaddy
The rivers are depending on glacial water and snowmelt from the mountains.
Rising temperature and changes in monsoon might be a major cause for decreasing glacierized area
Temperature is increasing by 0.03°C per year in the region and even faster at higher altitudes
Water Flows consistently decrease on the snow and glacier fed rivers, and less in rain-fed rivers.

River basins and their hydrological significance

Слайд 114/17/2014
Challenges to Water Availability and Food Production ?
Environmental degradation in the

watersheds (mainly due to poorly managed urbanization and industry)
Landslides and Floods (impact on agricultural lands and hydrogeology)
Climate change (increasing drought and flood: already challenged by seasonal water scarcity)
Shifting of agro-ecological zones due to climate change
High price of inputs in agriculture (fertilizers and seed) and access to market

(Therefore, Cereal production of Asia will be least by 10-30% lower than projected)

Слайд 124/17/2014
Impact on Livelihoods and Economy due to Food Crisis ?
Increasing prices

of commodity and food (Less production and high demand, on an average 30-50% will increase in food price)
Increasing poverty (spending 70-80% of income on food)
Increasing infant and child mortality
Key causes of the current food crisis are combined effects of ;
Speculation in food stocks
Extreme weather events
Low cereal stocks
Growth in biofuels use
High oil prices

Слайд 134/17/2014
Why Watershed Vulnerability and Interventions Studies?
Major challenge of the region is

too much water in monsoon and much less water in winter
So, challenge is to store excess water of high water availability period and use in extreme drought periods
Therefore, need to introduce watershed interventions technology like; storage pond, infiltration pond, terracing farm land, afforestation etc. (in the perspective of land management and water storage development)

Слайд 144/17/2014
Example of the Watershed Vulnerability Study in Nepal
Study Region: Middle-mountain and

hill region of Nepal

Слайд 154/17/2014
Example of the Watershed Vulnerability Study in Nepal
Different vulnerability indicators in

the context of Nepal

Слайд 164/17/2014
Irrigation water is crucial for a ‘Green Revolution’ and without a

‘Blue Revolution’ ahead; food crisis will be a major problem in the world in future
Watershed interventions to preserve excess water of monsoon in surface or sub-surface to fulfill demand of the dry period
Identify alternative to cereal in animal feed
Promote small scale farming business to adapt impact of the climate change
Promote eco-based farming system to minimize the spread of invasive species, and to maintain bio-diversity and ecosystem services.
Focus on small scale watershed interventions and improved irrigation systems (application of water according to plant demand)

Слайд 17Nillemann, C.; Kaltenborn, B.P.; 2009. The Environmental Food Crisis in Asia

– a ‘blue revolution’ in water efficiency is needed to adapt to Asia’s looming water crisis. Sustainable Mountain Development, ICIMOD, No. 56. 6 – 9.
Siddiqui, S.; Bharati, L.; Panta, M.; Gurung, P.; Rakhal, B.; Maharjan, L.D.; 2012. Nepal: Building Climate Resilience in Watersheds in Mountain Eco-Regions. Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report for Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management (DSCWM), Government of Nepal and Asian Development Bank (ADB). International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
Rijsberman, F.R.; 2006. Water scarcity: Fact or fiction? Agricultural Water Management. 80. 5 – 22.
Sugden, F.; Shrestha, L.; Bharati, L.; Gurung, P.; Maharjan, L.; Janmaat, J.; Price, J.; Sherpa, T.; 2013. Field Report on Small Agricultural Water Storage in Nepal. Lessons for up-scaling storage systems in the Koshi basin. International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
Vaidhya, R.A.; 2009. The Role of Water Storage in Adaptation to Climate Change in the HKH Region. Sustainable Mountain Development, ICIMOD, No. 56. 10 – 13.


Слайд 184/17/2014
What is Water Scarcity? (Video Source: FAO )

Слайд 194/17/2014
Water Scarcity is ………
Most Important Questions.......... ???
… true or not ?

run out of water or not?

… fact or fiction?

Is this debate really helpful to increase crop water productivity?

………Green and Blue Revolution ?

Обратная связь

Если не удалось найти и скачать презентацию, Вы можете заказать его на нашем сайте. Мы постараемся найти нужный Вам материал и отправим по электронной почте. Не стесняйтесь обращаться к нам, если у вас возникли вопросы или пожелания:

Email: Нажмите что бы посмотреть 

Что такое ThePresentation.ru?

Это сайт презентаций, докладов, проектов, шаблонов в формате PowerPoint. Мы помогаем школьникам, студентам, учителям, преподавателям хранить и обмениваться учебными материалами с другими пользователями.

Для правообладателей