Слайд 1PARTS OF SPEECH
1 The principles of the
traditional classification of the English vocabulary
and functional parts of speech.
3 The field structure of the English vocabulary.
4 New approaches to the vocabulary classification
Слайд 2The division of words into classes
a set of grammatical
Functional (function) function in the sentence
Слайд 3Traditional grammar approach
Scherba: notional parts of speech
(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num)
Functional parts of speech
(art, prep, conj, part, modal words, interj)
V.Vinogradov: notional parts of speech
(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num, the category of state (alone, alive,ashore)
Functional: particles proper, linking particles, prepositions,conjunctions)
M. Blokh (semantico-grammatical analysis):
words of broad semantcs (“do”, ”thing” etc. )
pronominal words (substitutes of names):
Functional words: prep, conj, particles, determiners etc.
Слайд 5Modern approaches
J. Sweet divided the vocabulary
the morphological properties into
and indeclinables (Adv, Prep, Conj, Interj).
declinables (N, Adj, V)
on the basis of the syntactic functioning of definite classes of words into
nominal words (noun-words) include noun-pronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds;
adjective words include adjective pronouns, adjective numerals, particles;
verb group includes personal forms and verbals.
Glison’s classification is based on two formal
indications: morphological form and word-order
group which has formal indications of word-changing (N, V, Adj, Adv)
and the group which has no such indications. nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs
Sledda distinguishes inflectional (nominals, verbals, adjectivals, adverbials) and positional classes. He also adds 8 smaller classes here: auxiliary verbs, determiners, prepositions conjunctions and different classes of pronouns.
Слайд 7O. Jespersen proposed a classification based on
the lexical meaning and morphological function of
the word in the phrase.
(The theory of three ranks)
primary word (Adj + N) e.g. a barking dog
secondary word (Adj + N) - a barking dog
tertiary words: a furiously barking dog
In the junction we find primaries and adjuncts, subjuncts
In the sentence I see a dog we find nexus (I see) and adnex (a dog)
Слайд 8The field structure of the English Vocabulary
Слайд 9Notional and functional
parts of speech
1 The lexical meaning is
bright and distinct
2 They аre open classes
3 They perform certain functions in the sentence
4 They form the "Lexical Paradigm of Nomination“
1 The lexical meaning is very general and weak;
2 they are closed systems (include a limited number of members);
3 function as linking and specifying words.
4 They have obligatory combinability;
Слайд 10The Lexical Paradigm of Nomination
Fancy - to
fancy - fanciful - fancifully
– decision – decisive – decisively
Beauty – to beautify – beautiful - beautifully
an end - to end -final - finally" (lexemic suppletivity),
gratitude - grateful - gratefully - to express gratitude (phrasemic suppletivity).
one, it, they … - to do, to make, to act … - such, same, similar … - thus, so, there…