Презентация на тему Allergy. (Subject 3)

Презентация на тему Презентация на тему Allergy. (Subject 3), предмет презентации: Медицина. Этот материал содержит 38 слайдов. Красочные слайды и илюстрации помогут Вам заинтересовать свою аудиторию. Для просмотра воспользуйтесь проигрывателем, если материал оказался полезным для Вас - поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте наш сайт презентаций ThePresentation.ru в закладки!

Слайды и текст этой презентации

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Allergy

*


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Immune system disorders

Weakened immune response:
Primary immunodeficiency
Secondary immunodeficiency
Excessive immune response:
Allergic reactions
Autoimmune reactions


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Antigen - any substance that can stimulate immune system
Allergen – any substance that can induce allergy
Allergy – excessive reaction of immune system to normally harmless substance

House Dust Mite

Pollen


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Allergy classification by P. G. H. Gell and R. R. A. Coombs

Type I hypersensitivity - Anaphylactic reactions.
Type II hypersensitivity - Cytotoxic reactions.
Type III hypersensitivity - Reactions mediated by immune complexes.
Type IV hypersensitivity - Cell mediated reactions.
Type V hypersensitivity - Stimulating allergic reactions.


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Pathogenesis of allergy

Absence of antibodies


Presence of antibodies to hen’s fluff (75 -90%)


Allergy manifestation 10-15%




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Immune and Allergic reactions

Similar features:
protection of the organism from genetically foreign ones
similar mechanisms of reactions
mediated with immune cells
Distinctive features of allergic reactions:
increased reactivity
transformed character of immune answer
tissue injury




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Hereditary Predisposition to Allergy

increased permeability of barriers
↑ activity of T-helpers, ↑ synthesis of IgE
↑ synthesis of allergic mediators
↓ inactivation of allergic mediators
hyperreactivity of bronchi, skin.
Allergic diseases with hereditary predisposition – atopic diseases – type 1 hypersensitivity


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Immunological Stage of Allergic Reaction

revealing the allergen
presentation of the allergen to lymphocytes
Ig synthesis
immune memory cells formation
fixation of the antibodies or T-killers in the site of allergen localization


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Biochemical Stage of Allergic Reaction

allergen interaction with specific antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes;
release or synthesis of biologically active substances – mediators of allergy.


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The stage of allergy clinical manifestation (type 1)

Local signs:
Itching, pain, rashes
Nasal congestion
? Mucus secretion.
Systemic Signs of Allergy
Smooth muscles constriction
bronchi (problems with breathing)
GIT (abdominal cramps)
Swelling of tongue, mouth
Vessels dilation, hypotension, shock


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Type 1 Allergic Reactions (anaphylactic, reaginic)

Allergic asthma
Conjunctivitis
Allergic rhinitis ("hay fever")
Anaphylactic shock
Angionevrotic edema (Quincke's disease)
Urticaria (hives).


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Immunological Stage

Transformation to blast




cytokines

Phagocyte

helper

suppressor

IgE and IgG

Allergen



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Immunological Stage Result

Mast Cell

Fixation of antibodies on the mast cells and basophils
Its possible to detect IgE in blood serum (diagnosis of type 1 hypersensitivity)


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Biochemical Stage

Mast Cell


Mediators of Allergy


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Classification of Allergy Mediators

Primary
(pre-stored)


Histamine
Heparine
Serotonine

Secondary
(new synthesis)


Prostaglandins
Leukotrienes
Cytokines


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Primary Mediators Effects

Histamine & Serotonin – vasodilation, ? vascular permeability, ? tone of smooth muscle cells
Histamine + pain, itching
Serotonin + ? secretion of mucus.
Heparin decreases blood clotting
Chemotaxins for neutrophils and eosinophils – provide the movement of the neutrophils and eosinophils


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Secondary Mediators

Leukotrienes - ↑ vessels permeability, spasm of smooth muscles, chemotactic factors.
Prostaglandins – bronchospasm, ↑ mucus secretion.
Platelet-activating factor - platelet aggregation, bronchospasm, release of histamine.
Cytokines – interleukins, tumor necrosis factor


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Type 2 allergic reactions (antibody-dependent cytotoxicity)

Transfusion reactions, autoimmune anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thyroiditis.

Transformation of own antigens to “non-self” antigens by chemicals, viruses.
The cell with transformed antigen – target cell
Synthesis of IgG and IgM against target cell antigens


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Antibody-dependent mechanisms of cell damage



Target cell


M A C

opsonization


MAC - membrane attack complex


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Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

enzymes




macrophages
neutrophils, eosinophils,
natural killers


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Type 5 allergic reactions (stimulating reactions)

Autoimmune thyroiditis
Antibodies bind to TSH receptor on thyroid epithelial cells and STIMULATE them
Thyroid gland hyperplasia
Excessive secretion of thyroid hormones.


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Type 3 allergic reactions (immune complexes)

Immune complex glomerulonephritis
Serum sickness
Arthus reaction (local reaction)

Antigens – antibiotics, Ig (serum as medicine), bacteria, viruses


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Features of type 3 hypersensitivity

Circulation of immune complexes in blood (systemic diseases)
IgG and IgM
Involvement of complement and phagocytes in tissue injury
Low blood complement level


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Phases of the systemic immune-complex disease

formation of antigen-antibody complexes in circulation;
deposition of the immune complexes in various tissues;
inflammatory reaction in the site of immune complexes deposition.


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Serum Sickness

Blood plasma amount

T I M E



Serum

Antibodies to serum


Clinical signs and symptoms


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Pathogenic properties of immune complexes

The amount of antigen - large enough to form immune complexes.
The size of the complexes - intermediate or small.
The dysfunction or overloading of phagocyte system.
Deposition of immune complexes: kidneys, joints, skin, heart, lungs, arterioles.


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Mechanism of tissue injury by immune complexes

Vessel wall






Enzymes
Active O2 radicals


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Local Manifestation of Immunocomplex Reaction

Arthus reaction - local area of tissue necrosis.
Cause - frequent injections of antigen into the fixed site of skin.


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Type 4 allergic reactions (cell-mediated, delayed)

Tuberculin test (Mantoux reaction )
Tuberculosis and leprosy
Transplant rejection
Viral infection
Tumor cells


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Type 4 hypersensitivity

Immunological stage - production of sensitized T-lymphocytes
Cell injury is mediated by phagocytes and cytokines.
Cytokines function:
Organization and regulation of immune response and inflammation
Cell injury (perforation of membranes, induction of apoptosis)


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Mechanisms of tissue injury

T-killers (perforins, granzymes)
phagocytes (active oxygen radicals)
lysosomal enzymes
granulomatous (specific) inflammation


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Pseudoallergy distinctive features

Sensitization (immunologic) phase is absent
Symptoms can occur at the first exposure.
The symptoms are directly depend on the dose of the substance


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Pseudo-allergy mechanisms

Non-immune degranulation of mast cells (histamine – liberating substances).
The alternative pathway of complement activation (without action of specific IgG and M antibodies).
Disturbances of arachidonic acid metabolism – aspirin asthma


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The mechanisms of self reactivity prevention

Selection and deletion of self-reactive T-cells and B-cells.
Peripheral suppression by
T-suppressor cells.


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Mechanisms of autoimmune diseases

Damage of physiological isolation (nervous system, a crystalline lens, thyroid gland).
Altering of self-antigens (burns, medicines, chemicals).
Similarity of exogenous antigen to self antigen:
(streptococci antigens are similar to myocardial and kidneys antigens).
Primary changes of immune system.


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General mechanisms of autoimmune pathology

Direct antibody mediated effects (diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia)
T cell mediated effects (psoriasis)
Immune complex mediated effects (lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid artritis)


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Hyposensitization

The patient is gradually vaccinated with progressively larger doses of the allergen.
Mechanism:
Increase of IgG synthesis (blocking antibodies)


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Allergy testing


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