Презентация на тему Acute аlcohol рoisoning

Презентация на тему Acute аlcohol рoisoning, предмет презентации: Медицина. Этот материал содержит 19 слайдов. Красочные слайды и илюстрации помогут Вам заинтересовать свою аудиторию. Для просмотра воспользуйтесь проигрывателем, если материал оказался полезным для Вас - поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте наш сайт презентаций ThePresentation.ru в закладки!

Слайды и текст этой презентации

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Chair of Medicine of Catastrophes, Neurosurgery and Military Medicine

Lecture: Critical Care on Acute Poisoning

Zaporozhye State Medical University

Lecturer: Mirniy Sergey Petrovich, assistant, candidate of medical sciences


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Topic: Acute Alcohol Poisoning

Alcohol poisoning (AP) is a serious – sometime deadly – result of consuming dangerous amounts of alcohol.
AP most often occurs as a result of drinking too many alcoholic beverages over a short period of time.
AP can also occur by: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) or methyl alcohol (methanol).


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Signs and symptoms of AP

may include:

CONFUSION, STUPOR
VOMITING
SEIZURES
SLOW OR IRREGULAR BREATING
PILE SKIN OR BLUE-TINGED SKIN
HYPOTERMIA
UNCONSCIOUSNESS


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CAUSES:

AP may result from accidental and intentional ingection:
ETHANOL is found in alcoholic beverages as well as common household items such as after shaves, colognes, perfums, mouthwashes

ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL is common found in rubbing alcohol, lotions, certain hand gels, antifreeze

METHANOL is found in items such us solvents, paints, varnishes, antifreeze.


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Test and diagnosis:

Visible signs and symptoms of AP

Order blood tests to check blood alcohol levels

Low blood sugar (may be)

Urine test on AP


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Ethylene glycol toxicity

Occurs in 3 stages:
First stage, called the neurologic phase, can occur in less than 1 hour after ingestion and last up to 12 hours. Hypocalcemia, abnormal reflexes.
Second stage, which occurs between 12 and 24 hours after ingestion - cardiopulmonary stage. Occur tachycardia, hypertension, ARDS, hypocalcemia, arrhythmias.
Third stage - renal stage.


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Causes

Ethanol may be ingested accidantally, as ofthen occurs in children.
Methanol ingestion may result in serious consequences, including blindness and death. Recognition and timely treatment are essential for a full recovery. Main symptoms:
Visual disturbances, headache, vertigo. GI: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
Isopropanol:
CNS complaints include headache, dizziness, poor coordinations, confusion. GI: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, gastritis with hematemesis.


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Physical Signs

Ethanol: flushed face; diaphoresis. Ataxia, slurred speech; drowsiness; stupor or coma
Methanol:
Retinal edema, hyperemia of the optic disc, optic atrophy. CNS signs: dyspnea, Kussmaul respiration. Cardiac signs: hypotension, bradycardia. Severe abdominal tenderness.
Isopropanol:
Nystagmus or myosis
Sinus tachycardia
Coma, respiratory depression
Hypotension


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Lab. Studies

Ethanol: increase serum blood alcohol level,
anemia. Elevation of hepatic transaminase levels. Prolongation of the prothrombin time.

Isopropanol:
Increase serum isopropanol level
Serum ketones will often be positive
Serum creatinine level can be elevated

Ethylene glycol:
Increase serum EG level
Increase serum creatinine level
Evidence of fluorescence


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AP treatment usually involves supportive care
CAREFUL MONITORING
Airway protection to prevent breathing or shoking problems
Oxygen therapy
Administration of fluids through a vein to prevent dehydratation

Treatment


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Emergency Department Care

Methanol
Forced diuresis; using sodium bicarbonate, administer folic acid (leucovorin), antidotal treatment: involves blocking alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme can be inhibited by ethanol or fomepizole. Ethanol is competetive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrohenase. Hemodialysis.
Isopropanol.
Treat hypotension with fluids and pressors
initiate emergent hemodialysis.


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Complications


Ethanol ingestion complications.
Hypoglycemia is common.
“Holiday heart” in which dysrhythmias.
Atrial fibrillation.
Cyrrosis, esophageal varices, erosive gastritis.
Isopropanol ingestion: hemorragic gastritis.
Methanol ingestion: blindness, acidosis, coma, cardiovascular collapse.


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Toxicity, Carbon Monoxide

Carbone Monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas produced by incomplete combustion carbonaceous material.

Increasing evidence implicates ambient urban CO levels in rates of angina, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest.


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Symptoms of acute poisoning CO


Dyspnea on exertion
Malaise, flulike symptoms, fatique
Lethargy, confusion, depression
Impulsiveness, distractibility
Hallucination, agitation
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Abdominal pain
Headache, drowsiness
Dizziness, weakness, confusion
Visual disturbance, syncope, seizure


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Physical examination:

Tachycardia, hypertension.
Hyperthermia, marked tachypnea
Classic cherry skin is rare, pallor is present more often
Retinal hemorrages, pappilledema
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
Neurologic disturbances (memory-amnesia), emotional lability, gait disturbance, movement disorders


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Lab. Studies

HbCO analysis (elevated level)
Arterial blood gas
Metabolic acidosis
Troponin, creatinninekinase-MB, myoglobin
Myocardial ischemia or depression
Complete blood count
Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia
Urinalysis (positive for albumine)


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Imaging Studies

Chest Radiography

CT – scanning

Electrocardiogram (sinus tachycardia, arrhythmias)

Neuropsychologic testing


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Emergency Department Care

Oxygen therapy
Intubation for the comatose patients
Cardiac monitoring, pulse oximetry
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Serial neurologic examinations (CT-scan)
Admission to a toxicology service
A portable Hyperbaric chamber (Gamow Bag) has been used for several years in-the-field treatment


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Prognosis

Variability of clinical severity, laboratory values and outcome limits prognostic accuracy.
Cardiac arrest, coma, metabolic acidosis are associated with poor outcome.
Abnormal findings on CT-scanning are associated with persistent neurologic impairment.
Neuropsychiatric testing may have prognostic efficacy in determing delayed sequale.


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