Презентация на тему Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context

Презентация на тему Презентация на тему Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context, предмет презентации: Философия. Этот материал содержит 84 слайдов. Красочные слайды и илюстрации помогут Вам заинтересовать свою аудиторию. Для просмотра воспользуйтесь проигрывателем, если материал оказался полезным для Вас - поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте наш сайт презентаций ThePresentation.ru в закладки!

Слайды и текст этой презентации

Слайд 1
Chapter 5The Self:Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context
Текст слайда:

Chapter 5

The Self:
Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context


Слайд 2
Discussion QuestionDo you consider yourself to be an above-average driver?
Текст слайда:

Discussion Question

Do you consider yourself to be an above-average driver?


Слайд 3
Learning Objectives (1 of 2)5.1	What is the self-concept, and how does
Текст слайда:

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

5.1 What is the self-concept, and how does it develop?
5.2 To what extent do people know themselves through introspection, and what are the consequences of introspection?
5.3 In what ways do people come to know themselves by observing their behavior?


Слайд 4
Learning Objectives (2 of 2)5.4	In what ways do people use others
Текст слайда:

Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

5.4 In what ways do people use others to know themselves?
5.5 When are people likely to succeed at self-control, and when are they likely to fail?
5.6 How do people portray themselves so that others will see them as they want to be seen?
5.7 What are the pros and cons of having high self- esteem?


Слайд 5
The Origins and  Nature of the Self-Concept5.1 What is the
Текст слайда:

The Origins and Nature of the Self-Concept

5.1 What is the self-concept, and how does it develop?


Слайд 6
Self-ConceptThe overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes
Текст слайда:

Self-Concept

The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes


Слайд 7
Origins of the Self (1 of 2)Rudimentary Self-ConceptSome primatesHumans at 18 to 24 months
Текст слайда:

Origins of the Self (1 of 2)

Rudimentary Self-Concept
Some primates
Humans at 18 to 24 months


Слайд 8
Origins of the Self (2 of 2)Child’s self-conceptConcreteReferences to characteristics like
Текст слайда:

Origins of the Self (2 of 2)

Child’s self-concept
Concrete
References to characteristics like age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies
Maturing self-concept
Less emphasis on physical characteristics
More emphasis on psychological states and how other people judge us


Слайд 9
Figure 5.1  What Do We See as Key Attributes of
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.1 What Do We See as Key Attributes of Other People’s Selves? Participants were asked to imagine that they saw an old friend that they knew when they were 25 years old but had not seen in 40 years. They were given a list of ways in which their friend had changed and rated each one according to how much it would alter their view of their friend’s true self, on a scale that went from 0% (“this change has no impact on his/her true self”) to 100% (“this change completely alters his/her true self”). People thought that changes in their friend’s morality (e.g., how cruel he/she was) would alter his/her true self more than other changes. People thought that changes in perceptual abilities (e.g., changes in vision) would have the smallest impact on their friend’s true self.

(Data from Strohminger & Nichols, 2014)


Слайд 10
Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (1 of 3)The squeaky wheel gets
Текст слайда:

Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (1 of 3)

The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
American proverb
The nail that stands out gets pounded down.
Japanese proverb


Слайд 11
Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (2 of 3)Independent View of the
Текст слайда:

Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (2 of 3)

Independent View of the Self

Defines self through own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not other people’s


Interdependent View of the Self

Defines self through relationships to other people
Recognizes that others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions affect one’s behavior
Connectedness and interdependence valued


Слайд 12
Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (3 of 3)Independent View of the
Текст слайда:

Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept (3 of 3)

Independent View of the Self

Independence and uniqueness valued
Held in many Western cultures

Interdependent View of the Self

Uniqueness frowned on
Held in many Asian and non-Western cultures

But there are also differences within cultures! Not all Westerners are independent and not all Easterners are interdependent.


Слайд 13
Choosing a Traditional Role over Career When Harvard-educated Masako Owada abandoned
Текст слайда:

Choosing a Traditional Role over Career When Harvard-educated Masako Owada abandoned her promising career to marry Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan and assumed the traditional roles required of her, many Western women questioned her decision. At issue for many was cultural interdependence versus independence of the self.

Source: Tsugufumi Matsumoto/Pool/AP Images


Слайд 14
Figure 5.2 Date of Statehood and Frequency of Popular Baby Names
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.2 Date of Statehood and Frequency of Popular Baby Names This graph shows selected U.S. states and the year they attained statehood. It can be seen that the more recently a state became part of the union, the less likely parents were to give their children popular names. Researchers view this as evidence that residents of these states have a more independent self-view.

(Based on Varnum & Kitayama, 2011)


Слайд 15
Functions of the SelfFour main functions:Self-knowledgeThe way we understand who we
Текст слайда:

Functions of the Self

Four main functions:
Self-knowledge
The way we understand who we are and organize this information
Self Control
The way we make plans and execute decisions
Impression management
The way we present ourselves to others and get them to see us as we want to be seen
Self-esteem
The way we maintain positive views of ourselves


Слайд 16
Knowing Ourselves  Through Introspection5.2 To what extent do people know
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves Through Introspection

5.2 To what extent do people know themselves through introspection, and what are the consequences of introspection?


Слайд 17
The Way of Introspection (1 of 2)IntrospectionThe process whereby people look
Текст слайда:

The Way of Introspection (1 of 2)

Introspection
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives


Слайд 18
The Way of Introspection (2 of 2)People do not rely on
Текст слайда:

The Way of Introspection (2 of 2)

People do not rely on introspection very often.
Why not?
Not always pleasant to think about ourselves
Reasons for our feelings and behavior can be outside conscious awareness


Слайд 19
Focusing on the Self:  Self-Awareness Theory (1 of 4)The idea
Текст слайда:

Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (1 of 4)

The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values


Слайд 20
Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (2 of 4)Sometimes people go
Текст слайда:

Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (2 of 4)

Sometimes people go far in their attempt to escape the self.
Focusing on the self can be very aversive.
Ways to turn off “internal spotlight” on oneself:
Alcohol abuse
Binge eating
Sexual masochism


Слайд 21
Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (3 of 4)Not all means
Текст слайда:

Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (3 of 4)

Not all means of escaping the self are damaging.
Religious expression
Spirituality


Слайд 22
Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (4 of 4)Self-focus is not
Текст слайда:

Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory (4 of 4)

Self-focus is not always damaging or aversive.
Example: if you have experienced a major success
Can also remind you of your sense of right and wrong


Слайд 23
Figure 5.3 Self-Awareness Theory: The Consequences of Self-Focused Attention When people
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.3 Self-Awareness Theory: The Consequences of Self-Focused Attention When people focus on themselves, they compare their behavior to their internal standards.

(Adapted from Carver & Scheier, 1981)


Слайд 24
Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than
Текст слайда:

Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than We Can Know (1 of 3)

It can be difficult to know why we feel the way we do.
What is it about your sweetheart that made you fall in love?
How much does sleep affect your state of mind?
What really determines what mood you’re in?


Слайд 25
Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than
Текст слайда:

Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than We Can Know (2 of 3)

College students recorded daily moods every day for 5 weeks (Wilson, Laser, & Stone, 1982)
Kept track of things that might predict their moods
Weather, workload, sleep
Students estimated how their mood was affected by these variables
Overall, inaccurate with what predicted their mood


Слайд 26
Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than
Текст слайда:

Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than We Can Know (3 of 3)

Causal Theories
Theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture.
Problem
Schemas and theories are not always correct. Can lead to incorrect judgments about the causes of our actions.


Слайд 27
The Consequences of Introspecting About Reasons (1 of 2)Reasons-Generated Attitude ChangeAttitude
Текст слайда:

The Consequences of Introspecting About Reasons (1 of 2)

Reasons-Generated Attitude Change
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize


Слайд 28
The Consequences of Introspecting About Reasons (2 of 2)ProblemFocus on things
Текст слайда:

The Consequences of Introspecting About Reasons (2 of 2)

Problem
Focus on things that are easy to put into words
Ignore feelings harder to explain
Hard-to-explain feelings are the ones that often matter in the long run


Слайд 29
Liz Lemon Makes a List In an episode of the TV
Текст слайда:

Liz Lemon Makes a List In an episode of the TV program 30 Rock, Liz Lemon (played by Tina Fey) made a list of the reasons why she liked and disliked her boyfriend Dennis (played by Dean Winters). According to research on self-generated attitude change, the act of making this list might have changed her mind about how she felt, at least temporarily.

Source: Patricia Schlein/PS3 WENN Photos/Newscom


Слайд 30
Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior5.3 In what ways do
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior

5.3 In what ways do people come to know themselves by observing their behavior?


Слайд 31
Self-Perception Theory (1 of 2)Self-Perception TheoryThe theory that when our attitudes
Текст слайда:

Self-Perception Theory (1 of 2)

Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs


Слайд 32
Self-Perception Theory (2 of 2)Infer inner feelings from behaviorOnly when not
Текст слайда:

Self-Perception Theory (2 of 2)

Infer inner feelings from behavior
Only when not sure how we feel
People judge whether their behavior
Really reflects how we feel
Or the situation that made us act that way


Слайд 33
Peanuts Cartoon
Текст слайда:

Peanuts Cartoon


Слайд 34
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation  (1 of 4)Intrinsic MotivationEngage in an
Текст слайда:

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation (1 of 4)

Intrinsic Motivation
Engage in an activity because of enjoyment and interest, not external rewards or pressures
Extrinsic Motivation
Engage in an activity because of external reasons, not because of enjoyment and interest


Слайд 35
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation  (2 of 4)Many teachers or parents
Текст слайда:

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation (2 of 4)

Many teachers or parents reward kids for good grades with compliments, candy, gold stars, or toys.
Other programs reward kids for reading books.
But do these programs increase or decrease a child’s love of reading?


Слайд 36
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation  (3 of 4)We have to consider
Текст слайда:

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation (3 of 4)

We have to consider the effects of rewards on people’s thoughts about:
Themselves
Their self-concept
Their motivation to read in the future
Danger of reward programs
Reading for rewards, not because it’s actually enjoyable


Слайд 37
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation  (4 of 4)Overjustification EffectThe tendency of
Текст слайда:

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation (4 of 4)

Overjustification Effect
The tendency of people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons


Слайд 38
Figure 5.4 The Over justification Effect During the initial baseline phase,
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.4 The Over justification Effect During the initial baseline phase, researchers measured how much time elementary school students played math games. During the reward program, they rewarded the children with prizes for playing with the games. When the rewards were no longer offered (during the follow-up phase), the children played with the games even less than they had during the baseline phase, indicating that the rewards had lowered their intrinsic interest in the games.

(Adapted from Greene, Sternberg, & Lepper, 1976)


Слайд 39
Preserving Intrinsic Interest (1 of 2)Task-contingent rewardsRewards that are given for
Текст слайда:

Preserving Intrinsic Interest (1 of 2)

Task-contingent rewards
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Performance-contingent rewards
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task


Слайд 40
Preserving Intrinsic Interest (2 of 2)Avoiding over-justification when using rewardsRewards will
Текст слайда:

Preserving Intrinsic Interest (2 of 2)

Avoiding over-justification when using rewards
Rewards will undermine interest only if interest was initially high.
The type of reward makes a difference.
Performance-contingent rewards are less damaging to intrinsic interest


Слайд 41
Mindsets and MotivationFixed mindsetThe idea that we have a set amount
Текст слайда:

Mindsets and Motivation

Fixed mindset
The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change
Growth mindset
The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
Mindset affects motivation
Fixed mindset more likely to give up and do poorly on subsequent tasks after failure


Слайд 42
Sally Forth Cartoon
Текст слайда:

Sally Forth Cartoon


Слайд 43
Understanding Our Emotions: The  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (1 of
Текст слайда:

Understanding Our Emotions: The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (1 of 3)

Example
Consider how happy, angry, or afraid you feel at any given time.
How do you know which emotion you are experiencing?
Don’t we know how we feel without having to think about it?


Слайд 44
Understanding Our Emotions: The  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (2 of
Текст слайда:

Understanding Our Emotions: The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (2 of 3)

Stanley Schachter (1964)
Experience of emotion is similar to other types of self-perception
Infer our emotions by observing our behavior


Слайд 45
Understanding Our Emotions: The  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (3 of
Текст слайда:

Understanding Our Emotions: The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (3 of 3)

Schachter’s theory
We experience emotions in a two-step self-perception process:
Experience physiological arousal.
Seek an appropriate explanation for it.


Слайд 46
Figure 5.5 The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion People first experience physiological
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.5 The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion People first experience physiological arousal and then attach an explanation to it.


Слайд 47
Schachter and Singer, 1962 (1 of 4)Research QuestionGiven the same degree
Текст слайда:

Schachter and Singer, 1962 (1 of 4)

Research Question
Given the same degree of physiological arousal, will people “feel” different emotions depending on their environment?


Слайд 48
Schachter and Singer, 1962 (2 of 4)Cover Story: Injection of “Suproxin”
Текст слайда:

Schachter and Singer, 1962 (2 of 4)

Cover Story: Injection of “Suproxin” test of vision
IV 1: Physiological Arousal
epinephrine informed
(shake, heart pound, face flush)
epinephrine ignorant
(mild, harmless, no side effects)
Placebo
(saline, mild, harmless, no side effects)


Слайд 49
Schachter and Singer, 1962 (3 of 4)Cover Story: Injection of “Suproxin”
Текст слайда:

Schachter and Singer, 1962 (3 of 4)

Cover Story: Injection of “Suproxin” test of vision
IV 2: Environmental Cues (Mood of “Stooge”)
Euphoric/happy (playing games)
Angry (insulting questionnaire)
DV = Participant’s mood


Слайд 50
Schachter and Singer, 1962 (4 of 4)ResultsEpinephrine-informed groupDid not become angry
Текст слайда:

Schachter and Singer, 1962 (4 of 4)

Results
Epinephrine-informed group
Did not become angry when exposed to angry stooge
Had alternate explanation for their arousal (the drug)
Epinephrine-ignorant group
Became euphoric
Joined stooge in playing games


Слайд 51
Implications of the Two-Factor  Theory of Emotion ImplicationsEmotions are somewhat
Текст слайда:

Implications of the Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

Implications
Emotions are somewhat arbitrary.
Emotions depend on our explanations for arousal.


Слайд 52
Finding the Wrong Cause:  Misattribution of Arousal (1 of 2)To
Текст слайда:

Finding the Wrong Cause: Misattribution of Arousal (1 of 2)

To what extent do the results found by Schachter and Singer (1962) generalize to everyday life?
Do people form mistaken emotions in the same way as participants in that study did?
In everyday life, one might argue, people usually know why they are aroused.


Слайд 53
Finding the Wrong Cause: Misattribution of Arousal (2 of 2)Misattribution of
Текст слайда:

Finding the Wrong Cause: Misattribution of Arousal (2 of 2)

Misattribution of Arousal
Making mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
Arousal from one source (e.g., caffeine, exercise, a fright) can enhance the intensity of how the person interprets other feelings (e.g., attraction to someone).


Слайд 54
Is It the Bridge, or Are You in Love? When people
Текст слайда:

Is It the Bridge, or Are You in Love? When people are aroused for one reason, such as occurs when they cross a scary bridge, they often attribute this arousal to the wrong source—such as attraction to the person they are with.

Source: Omika/Fotolia


Слайд 55
Figure 5.6 Misattribution of Arousal When a woman approached men on
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.6 Misattribution of Arousal When a woman approached men on a scary bridge and asked them to fill out a questionnaire, a high percentage of them were attracted to her and called her for a date. When the same woman approached men after they had crossed the bridge and had rested, relatively few called her for a date.

(Adapted from Dutton & Aron, 1974)


Слайд 56
Using Other People  to Know Ourselves 5.4 In what ways
Текст слайда:

Using Other People to Know Ourselves

5.4 In what ways do people use others to know themselves?


Слайд 57
Self-Concept Does Not Develop in  a Solitary ContextSelf-concept shaped by people around us
Текст слайда:

Self-Concept Does Not Develop in a Solitary Context

Self-concept shaped by people around us


Слайд 58
Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (1 of 5)How do
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (1 of 5)

How do we use others to define ourselves?
Measure our own abilities and attitudes by comparing to other people.
If you donate $50 to charity and find out your friend donates $10, you can feel generous.
If you find out your friend donated $100, you might not feel as generous!


Слайд 59
Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (2 of 5)Social Comparison
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (2 of 5)

Social Comparison Theory
The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
The theory revolves around two important questions:
When do you engage in social comparison?
With whom do you choose to compare yourself?


Слайд 60
Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (3 of 5)When do
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (3 of 5)

When do you engage in social comparison?
No objective standard exists to measure against
When we experience uncertainty
Example: New office donation program, not sure what amount would be generous, you are especially likely to compare yourself to others.


Слайд 61
Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (4 of 5)With whom
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (4 of 5)

With whom do you choose to compare yourself?
Initial impulse: anyone who is around
Occurs quickly and automatically


Слайд 62
Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (5 of 5)Goal: know
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves to Others (5 of 5)

Goal: know the furthest level to which we can aspire
Upward social comparison:
Comparing to people who are better on a particular ability
Goal: feel better about yourself
Downward social comparison:
Comparing to people who are worse on a particular trait or ability


Слайд 63
Knowing Ourselves by Adopting Other People’s Views (1 of 2)We adopt
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Adopting Other People’s Views (1 of 2)

We adopt other people’s views in some circumstances
“Looking glass self” (Cooley, 1902)
We see ourselves and the social world through the eyes of other people
Adopt other’s views when we want to get along with them


Слайд 64
Knowing Ourselves by Adopting Other People’s Views (2 of 2)Social TuningThe
Текст слайда:

Knowing Ourselves by Adopting Other People’s Views (2 of 2)

Social Tuning
The process whereby people adopt another person’s attitudes


Слайд 65
Figure 5.7 Social Tuning to a Likable Experimenter Participants took a
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.7 Social Tuning to a Likable Experimenter Participants took a test of automatic prejudice toward black people, after interacting with an experimenter who was likable or unlikable and wore an antiracism T-shirt or a blank T-shirt. When the experimenter was likable, participants showed less automatic prejudice when she was wearing the antiracism T-shirt than when she was not (the higher the number on the scale, the more the anti-black prejudice). When the experimenter was unlikable, participants reacted against her views: They showed more automatic prejudice when she was wearing the antiracist T-shirt than when she was not. These results show that people tend to automatically adopt the views of people they like, but automatically reject the views of people they do not.

(Adapted from Sinclair, Lowery, Hardin, & Colangelo, 2005)


Слайд 66
Knowing Our Future Feelings by Consulting Other PeopleAffective ForecastsPeople’s predictions about
Текст слайда:

Knowing Our Future Feelings by Consulting Other People

Affective Forecasts
People’s predictions about how they will feel in response to a future emotional event
Example: Predicted first date compatibility based on either:
Reading profile of date
Reading about how much another person enjoyed the speed date
Results:
Affective forecasts better when based on other person’s evaluation rather than reading profile


Слайд 67
Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self 5.5 When are people
Текст слайда:

Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self

5.5 When are people likely to succeed at self-control, and when are they likely to fail?


Слайд 68
Self-Control: The Executive Function  of the Self (1 of 3)Self-ControlMaking
Текст слайда:

Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self (1 of 3)

Self-Control
Making choices about present and plans for the future


Слайд 69
Self-Control: The Executive Function  of the Self (2 of 3)Thought
Текст слайда:

Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self (2 of 3)

Thought suppression
Attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
Not that efficient!


Слайд 70
Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self (3 of 3)Exerting effort
Текст слайда:

Self-Control: The Executive Function of the Self (3 of 3)

Exerting effort on one task limits ability to exert self-control on another task
How can self-control be improved?
Believing willpower is an unlimited resource
Prayer


Слайд 71
Impression Management:  All the World’s a Stage 5.6 How do
Текст слайда:

Impression Management: All the World’s a Stage

5.6 How do people portray themselves so that others will see them as they want to be seen?


Слайд 72
Actors Engaged in  Impression ManagementImpression ManagementThe attempt by people to
Текст слайда:

Actors Engaged in Impression Management

Impression Management
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen


Слайд 73
David Duke: From Klansman to Politician Impression management in action: In
Текст слайда:

David Duke: From Klansman to Politician Impression management in action: In the 1970s, David Duke was a leader in the Ku Klux Klan; in 1991, he ran for governor of Louisiana as a mainstream conservative Republican. A remarkable change occurred in Duke’s presentation of self during this time.

Source: (left) Lee Corkran/Sygma/Corbis; (right) Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division


Слайд 74
Ingratiation and Self-Handicapping (1 of 2) IngratiationFlattering, praising, and generally trying
Текст слайда:

Ingratiation and Self-Handicapping (1 of 2)

Ingratiation
Flattering, praising, and generally trying to make ourselves likable to another person, often of higher status
Self-handicapping
Creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves
If we do poorly on a task, we can avoid blaming ourselves


Слайд 75
Ingratiation and Self-Handicapping (2 of 2) Self-handicappingBehavioral self-handicappingPeople act in ways
Текст слайда:

Ingratiation and Self-Handicapping (2 of 2)

Self-handicapping
Behavioral self-handicapping
People act in ways that reduce the likelihood of success so that if they fail, they can blame it on obstacles rather than ability
Example: pulling an all-nighter before a test
Reported self-handicapping
Rather than creating obstacles to success, people devise ready-made excuses in case they fail
Example: complaining about not feeling well when you take a test


Слайд 76
Culture, Impression Management, and Self-EnhancementCulturally universalDesire to manage image we presentCultural
Текст слайда:

Culture, Impression Management, and Self-Enhancement

Culturally universal
Desire to manage image we present
Cultural differences
Kinds of images we want to present
E.g., “Saving face” is important in Asian cultures


Слайд 77
Self-Esteem:  How We Feel About Ourselves 5.7 What are the
Текст слайда:

Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves

5.7 What are the pros and cons of having high self-esteem?


Слайд 78
Self-Esteem:  How We Feel About Ourselves (1 of 3)Self-EsteemOverall evaluation
Текст слайда:

Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves (1 of 3)

Self-Esteem
Overall evaluation (positive or negative) that people have of themselves


Слайд 79
Self-Esteem:  How We Feel About Ourselves (2 of 3)Benefits of
Текст слайда:

Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves (2 of 3)

Benefits of high self-esteem:
Buffers against thoughts of own mortality
Terror management theory
Motivates us to persevere when going gets rough


Слайд 80
Self-Esteem:  How We Feel About Ourselves (3 of 3)NarcissismCombination of
Текст слайда:

Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves (3 of 3)

Narcissism
Combination of excessive self-love and a lack of empathy toward others
Has increased in college students since the 1980s


Слайд 81
Narcissus at the Pool In Greek mythology, Narcissus fell in love
Текст слайда:

Narcissus at the Pool In Greek mythology, Narcissus fell in love with his own reflection in a pool of water and was so fond of his own image that he couldn’t leave and eventually died. Today, narcissism refers to the combination of excessive self-love and a lack of empathy toward others.

Source: SuperStock/Alamy


Слайд 82
Figure 5.8  Are People Becoming More Narcissistic?  The top
Текст слайда:

Figure 5.8 Are People Becoming More Narcissistic? The top (red) line shows average scores for college students on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), a common measure of narcissism, from the years 1980 to 2008. The bottom (blue) line shows the percentage of first-person pronouns (e.g., I, me, mine) in the lyrics of the 10 most popular songs of the year from 1980 to 2007. As you can see there has been a steady increase on both measures over time, suggesting that narcissism may be increasing.

(Based on Twenge & Foster, 2010)


Слайд 83
Discussion Question Follow-upBased on the research you read in this chapter,
Текст слайда:

Discussion Question Follow-up

Based on the research you read in this chapter, why do you think most people consider themselves to be above-average drivers?


Слайд 84
Summary and ReviewThe Self Functions and DefinitionsSources of Self-KnowledgeIntrospectionSelf-PerceptionSocial InteractionSelf-PresentationSelf-Esteem
Текст слайда:

Summary and Review

The Self
Functions and Definitions
Sources of Self-Knowledge
Introspection
Self-Perception
Social Interaction
Self-Presentation
Self-Esteem


Обратная связь

Если не удалось найти и скачать презентацию, Вы можете заказать его на нашем сайте. Мы постараемся найти нужный Вам материал и отправим по электронной почте. Не стесняйтесь обращаться к нам, если у вас возникли вопросы или пожелания:

Email: Нажмите что бы посмотреть 

Что такое ThePresentation.ru?

Это сайт презентаций, докладов, проектов, шаблонов в формате PowerPoint. Мы помогаем школьникам, студентам, учителям, преподавателям хранить и обмениваться учебными материалами с другими пользователями.


Для правообладателей

Яндекс.Метрика