Презентация на тему The ecological monitoring of soils condition. (Lesson 9)

Презентация на тему The ecological monitoring of soils condition. (Lesson 9), предмет презентации: Экология. Этот материал содержит 48 слайдов. Красочные слайды и илюстрации помогут Вам заинтересовать свою аудиторию. Для просмотра воспользуйтесь проигрывателем, если материал оказался полезным для Вас - поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте наш сайт презентаций ThePresentation.ru в закладки!

Слайды и текст этой презентации

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Saint-Petersburg State University University of Stavanger

“Joint Norwegian-Russian Master of Science program in Geoecological monitoring and rational use of natural resources in the Northern oil and gas production regions”


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Lesson 9

The Ecological Monitoring of Soils Condition


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Migration and accumulation of chemical substances in the landscape are largely determined by the properties of depositing landscape components - soil cover and vegetation.


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Soil is the only component of the landscape, which arises from the interaction of all other landscape components:
the rocks, air, natural waters, vegetation, microorganisms and animals.


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All the pollutants into the air or water, are deposited on the surface of the soil and are absorbed by plants.


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As the main landscape component, soil can be considered as an integral indicator of pollution of natural-territorial complexes, giving an idea of the quality life-supporting components - air and water


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On the other hand, contaminated soils themselves are sources of secondary pollution of air, surface and groundwater.


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The quality of soils/substrates and their toxicity is determined by the chemical composition of the soil and the content of pollutants


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Physical-chemical parameters of soils are included in the list of the general characteristics of the sanitarian parameter of land.

Soil texture,
A Acid-alkaline conditions,
O Organic matter content
and other properties of soil

which determine the mobility of chemical elements and the intensity of their involvement in the biological cycle.


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Particle size classifications used by different countries, diameters in μm


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Russian classification of mechanical components of soil
(Н. А. Качинский, 1958)




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Classification of soils according to texture (Н. А. Качинский, 1958)




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In the United States, twelve soil texture classifications are defined by the United States Department of Agriculture USDA:
Clay
Silt
Sand
Loam
Silty clay
Sandy clay
Clay loam
Silt loam
Sandy Loam
Loamy sand
Silty clay loam
Sandy clay loam
Determining the soil textures is often aided with the use of a soil texture triangle.


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The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils. pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the activity of hydronium ions (H+ or, more precisely, H3O+aq) in a solution.


In water, it normally ranges from -1 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is is acidic and above 7 is alkaline.
The pH value in soils - 2,5 to 12,5.


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Acidity in soils comes from H+ and Al3+ ions in the soil solution and sorbed to soil surfaces.

While pH is the measure of H+ in solution, Al3+ is important in acid soils because between pH 4 and 6, Al3+ reacts with water (H2O) forming AlOH2+, and Al(OH)2+, releasing extra H+ ions. Every Al3+ ion can create[ 3 H+ ions.

Many other processes contribute to the formation of acid soils including rainfall, fertilizer use, plant root activity and the weathering of primary and secondary soil minerals. Acid soils can also be caused by pollutants such as acid rain and mine spoilings.


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The neutral soil reaction corresponds to a pH of 6.1-7.4.
If the pH is higher than 7.4, then the reaction of the soil is alkaline, lower - acidic.
In this case, acidic soils are classified as follows:
very strongly acidic - pH is within <4.0,
strong acid - pH 4.1-4.5,
medium acid - pH 4.6-5.0,
slightly acid - pH 5.1- 6.0,
weakly alkaline soils have pH 7.5-8.5,
strongly alkaline soils 8.6-10.0,
sharply alkaline pH> 10.0


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The United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, formerly Soil Conservation Service classifies soil pH ranges as follows


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Map of soil acidity (T. Hengl)


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Soil organic matter

It can be divided into three general pools:
living biomass of microorganisms,
fresh and partially decomposed residues,
and humus: the well-decomposed organic material.


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humus (coined 1790–1800; from the Latin humus: earth, ground) refers to the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals.
Humus significantly influences the bulk density of soil and contributes to moisture and nutrient retention. Soil formation begins with the weathering of humus.


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Humus has a characteristic black or dark brown color and is organic due to an accumulation of organic carbon. The three major horizons are: (A) surface horizon, (B) illuvial horizon (subsoil) and (C) substratum. Some soils have an organic horizon (O) on the surface. Hard bedrock, which is not soil, uses the letter R.


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Biogenic elements (N, P, K, Ca ctr.),

Macroelements (Si, Na, Mg ctr.),

Microelements, trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Sb, Co, Mn, Ba Sr, Mo, V ctr.).


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The six most common elements associated with organic molecules—carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur—take a variety of chemical forms and may exist for long periods in the atmosphere, on land, in water, or beneath Earth’s surface.


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Thus, contamination results in:

Changing the physical and chemical characteristics of soils: - change in texture, - change in the total saturation of the base (pH shift, etc.) - accumulation of toxic substances.


Water migration of pollutants and pollution of natural waters.
The absorption of pollutants by living organisms and their involvement in the biological cycle.


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The methods of soils investigation


Main soil horizons


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Soil profiles are studied at monitoring stations.
Description of soil profile includes description of soil horizons (color, soil texture, moisture, structure, density, composition, neoplasm, inclusions, carbonate reaction with HCl, the transition of the horizon and other features )


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The chemical composition of soils is the specific indicator of anthropogenic environmental pollution of terrestrial ecosystems


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Taking, storage and transportation of soil samples are carried out in accordance with applicable standards (ГОСТ 17.1.5.02-80; ГОСТ 17.1.5.05-85; ГОСТ 17.4.3.01-83; ГОСТ 17.4.4.02-84)


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ГОСТ 17.4.4.02-84

EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, REAGENTS
Shovels by ГОСТ 19596—74. Knives for soil by ГОСТ 23707—79. Knives from polyethylene or polystyrene. Soil drills.
A refrigerator that maintains the temperature from 4 to 6 ° C. Refrigerators-bags.Laboratory balance for general use by ГОСТ 24104—80 with a maximum load of 200 and 1000 g. Enameled cuvettes. Glass crystallizers. Soil sieve with a mesh of 0.25; 0.5; 1; 3 mm by ГОСТ 3584—73.
Laboratory glass spirits by ГОСТ 10090—74.
Porcelain mortars and pestles by ГОСТ 9147—80.
Mortars and pistils of jasper, agate or fused corundum.
Vials or cans of glass wide-necked with ground glass stoppers with a capacity of 300, 500, 800, 1000 cm3.
Banks or boxes of food polyethylene or polystyrene. Metal spatulas by ГОСТ 19126—79.
Plastic spatulas by ГОСТ 19126—79.
Scoops.
Wrapping paper by ГОСТ 8273—75.
Medical glue.
Tracing paper by ГОСТ 892—70.
Cloth bags.
Packages and film polyethylene.
Parchment by ГОСТ 2995—73.
Tampons cotton-gauze sterile.
Cardboard Boxes.
Acid, hydrochloric acid by ГОСТ 3118—77, pure for analysis, a solution with a mass fraction of 3 and 10%.
Sodium hydroxide by ГОСТ -1328—77.
Rectified ethyl alcohol by ГОСТ 18300—72.
Technical formalin by ГОСТ 1625—75, The highest grade, a solution with a mass fraction of 3%.
Sodium chloride by ГОСТ 4233—77, Isotonic solution with a mass fraction of 0.85%.


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The sample is taken from each genetic horizon –
the material is taken from one place of the horizon, or one layer of the soil profile, typical of this horizon, or layer.


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Sample from two horizons: Peaty & humic horizon О /А0А1 (Ат) and mineral one В (Вg)


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A sample from each of the two layers О/Ат and T of organogenic soils


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Sampling of soil is carried out by the envelope or by diagonal methods in such a way that each sample represents a part of the soil, typical of the genetic horizons or layers of this soil type.


Number of point samples is determined according to
ГОСТ 17.4.3.01-83


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Weight of a point sample is not less than 1 kg (0.5 kg). The possibility of secondary contamination of samples is excluded by stripping of soil profile wall before sampling by a polyethylene or plastic knife.


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Soil samples for physical-chemical analysis are dried to air-dry state according to ГОСТ 5180-75 (without direct sunlight!)

Air-dried samples stored in cloth bags, in cardboard boxes or in glass containers.


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Soil samples taking for analysis of hydrocarbons, are placed in plastic bags, tightly closed and in this form are transmitted to the laboratory


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The list of contaminants measured in samples of soils According to Evaluation of the background (initial) state of the environment of licensed area of oil&gas fields, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District



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Resolution of the Government YaNAO from 14.02.2013 N 56-P (as amended on 11.26.2013) "On the territorial system of surveillance of the environment within the boundaries of the licensed areas subsoil for the purpose of oil and gas fields in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug"

pH values ,
concentration of NO3 ̃, PO4 ̃̃̃, SO4 ̄̃, Cl¯
HC ,
benzo(a)pyrene,  
 anionic surfactant synthetic
Total Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr VI, Cd
phenols


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The list of laboratory analyses of soils

* - Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, V, Mn, Ba, Cr, Hg


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The regional geochemical background of soil

The rule of calculation of the regional geochemical background
х + δ,
where х – average arithmetic, δ – standard deviation

Anomaly concentration х + 2δ
High anomaly concentration х + 3δ


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Content of chemical elements in soils of Zapadno-Jarojachinskoe petroleum field, mg/kg


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Distribution of HC in soils of Zapadno-Jarojachinskoe petroleum field, mg/kg




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Percent Distribution of PAH
in soils of Zapadno-Jarojachinskoe petroleum field


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Total Coefficient of Soil Pollution


where: Сi опр – value is determined by the content of i-toxicant in the soil ;
Сi рф – value of regionally-background content in the soil of i-toxicant .


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The indexes of total pollution of landscape components are calculated. The estimation of environmental pollution degree is made.


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Distribution of Soil Pollution
Index



allowable degree of pollution, weak level of pollution, the average degree of pollution


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Method of the main component of the factorial analysis

It is revealed 5 factors defining 85 % of all correlation communications.

Hg68 Zn62 Cu53 HC40
V64 Cr59

It is interpreted as anthropogenous factor, caused by pollution as a result of investigation and development oil-gas deposits of a tundra zone.


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Parity of natural and anthropogenic factors in the formation of the chemical compound of oil-gas deposits soils of Urengoj-tundra


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